Ilija Sazdovski

Formación académica

Licenciado en Matemáticas y Física por la University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius y máster en Economía Ecológica por el Integrated Business Institute de Skopje.

Doctorado en curso

Ilija Sazdovski está finalizando su tesis doctoral en el campo de la circularidad de los materiales, dirigida por el Dr. Pere Fullana i Palmer en la “Cátedra UNESCO en Ciclo de Vida y Cambio Climático” d’ESCI-UPF. Su tesis tiene como objetivo proponer mejoras metodológicas a la metodología de evaluación del ciclo de vida involucrando los principios de la economía circular. Desarrolló aspectos teóricos de dos indicadores de circularidad, que pueden ser utilizados en productos de rápido movimiento como el embalaje, a través de la inclusión del tiempo en los principios del ciclo de vida. Experto de laboratorio en identificar propiedades cualitativas circulares, en materiales plásticos de origen biológico y fósil.

Actividad profesional

Ilija Sazdovski es miembro de la Asociación Internacional de Ingenieros Energéticos. Entre 2012 y 2018, fue parte del Consejo Asesor Científico para la Conferencia sobre Desarrollo Sostenible de Energía, Agua y Sistemas Ambientales. Es coautor del III Plan Nacional de Acción de Eficiencia Energética entre 2016-2018 de Macedonia y una sub-ley nacional para el Monitoreo y verificación de reducciones de energía y Gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI). Ha sido autor y ha apoyado el desarrollo de varias soluciones de software para el monitoreo de energía y los sistemas de Monitoreo, Reporte y Verificación (MRV) de GEI. Fue contratado como experto Internacional por las Naciones Unidas para diseñar sistemas MRV de GEI para el sector de la construcción.

Es un investigador experimentado y es autor de numerosos informes técnicos, estrategias, conferencias y artículos científicos.

Publicaciones seleccionadas

Sazdovski, I., Bala, A., Fullana-i-Palmer, P., (2021)

The ever-increasing volume of packaging waste is widely recognised as a key global environmental challenge. Packaging is thus a central concern for advocates and analysts of circular economy (CEc), who often apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology when measuring the environmental impacts of products and packaging. We undertook a systematic literature review as a research method, and in-depth analysis to ascertain the extent to which the new CEc paradigm has been integrated in LCA methodology applied to beverage packaging and reported in scientific papers. Carefully developed search strings returned 866 articles relevant to our enquiry from the databases of SCOPUS and Web of Science. Applying our selected eligibility criteria, we extracted a subset of 51 articles for in-depth analysis. The analysed literature shows the links between the quality of packaging material for recycling and the profoundness of the LCA studies. The paper provides the following set of recommendations for enhancing the future practice in development of the scientific LCAs for beverage packaging: (i) taking all direct and indirect factors into account when assessing the refillable beverage packaging system and conducting break-even analysis in order to achieve impartial comparative assessments of single-use and refillable systems; (ii) developing proxies in cases when actual data is lacking with which to model the recycling scenarios for exported secondary materials and hence improving the accuracy of recycling rate assessments in LCA models; (iii) improving the definition of the LCA function by introducing multiple loops of the packaging material and assessing qualitative changes in the material resulting from the multiple-recycling process. Thus improved practice of LCAs could better inform and improve the design of new packaging strategies aimed at prolonging the life of packaging materials in the technosphere, equally fulfilling the principles of the CEc.


Delgado-Aguilar, M., Puig, R., Sazdovski, I., Fullana-i-Palmer, P., (2020)

Circular economy comes to break the linear resource to waste economy, by introducing different strategies, two of them being: using material from renewable sources and producing biodegradable products. The present work aims at developing polylactic acid (PLA), typically made from fermented plant starch, and polycaprolactone (PCL) blends, a biodegradable polyester, to study their potential to be used as substitutes of oil-based commodity plastics. For this, PLA/PCL blends were compounded in a batch and lab scale internal mixer and processed by means of injection molding. Tensile and impact characteristics were determined and compared to different thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polystyrene, and others. It has been found that the incorporation of PCL into a PLA matrix can lead to materials in the range of 18.25 to 63.13 megapascals of tensile strength, 0.56 to 3.82 gigapascals of Young’s modulus, 12.65 to 3.27 percent of strain at maximum strength, and 35 to 2 kJ/m2 of notched impact strength. The evolution of the tensile strength fitted the Voigt and Reuss model, while Young’s modulus was successfully described by the rule of mixtures. Toughness of PLA was significantly improved with the incorporation of PCL, significantly increasing the energy required to fracture the specimens. Blends containing more than 20 wt% of PCL did not break when unnotched specimens were tested. Overall, it was found that the obtained PLA/PCL blends can constitute a strong and environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based commodity materials.


Bozhikaliev, V., Sazdovski I., Adler, J., Markovska, N. (2019)

Bioenergy villages can be defined as villages, municipalities, settlements or communities, which produce and use most of their energy from local bioenergy and other renewable energy sources. A bioenergy village approach has not been applied in Macedonia yet, and it is at a nascent stage of implementation in other South-Eastern European countries. This work aims to integrate a techno-economic, social and environmental assessment and an implementation strategy into a bioenergy village concept, which is not often seen in works dedicated to bioenergy villages and biomass based heating systems. The assessment was conducted by means of energy audit and project-related tools, whilst the strategy was composed by bioenergy working group meetings. Results show that a biomass based district heating system is a more attractive solution for heating several public buildings instead of a fossil fuelled system, with numerous associated benefits. Such concepts can be replicated with variety of renewables, thus contributing to sustainable development pathways of small communities.


Sazdovski, I., Bojovic, B., Batlle-Bayer, L., Aldaco, R., Margallo, M., Fullana-i-Palmer, P.

This paper introduces a new methodology for the analysis of the time of recycling to compare different life cycle assessments (LCA). We apply the three variables that define the value creation principles in the Ellen MacArthur Foundation's definition of circularity: material, energy and time. Including time in the LCA methodology improves understanding of the system under study, especially for products that have a relatively short usage time compared to their recycling time. We developed a formula that includes the time necessary for obtaining the secondary material needed for "n+1" product. The paper shows that we need to consider the production of additional packaging products, quantity of which depends on the time needed for recycling, to develop comparative LCAs between systems that serve same function. The proposed approach to packaging LCA contributes to the scientific debate over the allocation of credits and burdens between several consecutive life cycles of a material.


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2024-07-20 11:44:00